The 34-year-old, who was vaccinated against the virus on Friday, has been isolated from his Chile team-mates for 72 hours after initially being taken into hospital with the throat infection.
The national team confirmed he had later tested positive for coronavirus but that no other players in the squad had been infected.
The midfielder will now miss Chile’s World Cup qualifier with Argentina on Thursday.
Infection rates in Chile remain high with over 6,000 daily cases reported.
Vidal posted a picture of him receiving the vaccine on Instagram on Friday alongside the caption: ‘Happy with the vaccine !!!
‘Now we are better for the next challenges with @laroja.
‘To take care of each other and to get vaccinated.’